Semen should be kept at a 35 to 37C until progressive motility has been determined, after which it can be allowed to cool
to room temperature. Semen volume is not important, but it is necessary to record the volume of the sperm-containing portion
so that the total number of sperm per ejaculate can be calculated. Sperm cell motility, morphology, and concentration are
determined in the conventional manner.
Color: Opalescent to milky white with a clear prostatic supernatant or homogeneous
Volume: Pre sperm fraction: 0.1 to 3 ml, Sperm-rich fraction: 0.1 to 6 ml Prostatic fraction: one to
50 ml Total volume: one to 60 ml
Progressively Motile Sperm: 60 to 90%
Number of Sperm per Ejaculate: 200
Million to 3 Billion depending mostly on dog size
Morphologically Normal Sperm: 70 to 90%
usually more than10,000/ ml. However, only the presence of many white blood cells is an indication for bacterial culture of
The presence of epithelial cells, red blood cells, inflammatory cells, and germinal epithelial cells are
noted under low magnification
Semen from males that have not ejaculated recently may contain more epithelial cells
and debris than semen from a male that is used frequently but if large amounts of debris or dead sperm are present, a second
sample should be collected 24 hours later.
Rob Lofstedt. Professor of Theriogenology.
Atlantic Veterinary College
University of Prince Edward Island. P.E.I. Canada. C1A 4P3.